Patient information: Menopause
Robert F Casper, MD
Robert L Barbieri, MD
William F Crowley, Jr, MD
Kathryn A Martin, MD
Last literature review version 18.2: May 2010 | This topic last updated: May 10, 2010
INTRODUCTION — Menopause is defined as the time in a woman's life, usually between 45 and 55 years, when the ovaries stop producing eggs and menstrual periods end. The average age of menopause is 51 years.
Years before you stop having menstrual periods, changes in your hormone levels can lead to some of the symptoms of menopause. In addition to irregular periods, the most common symptoms are hot flashes, night sweats, and vaginal dryness.
Menopause is a normal part of a woman's life and does not always need to be treated. However, the changes that happen before and after menopause can be disruptive. If you have bothersome symptoms, effective treatments are available.
More detailed information about menopause is available by subscription. (See "Clinical manifestations and diagnosis of menopause".)
AM I GOING THROUGH MENOPAUSE? — A number of terms are used to describe the time before and after you stop having menstrual periods.
The average age of menopause is 51 years, although the age range can vary between 45 and 55 years. Women who become menopausal before age 40 are considered to have an abnormally early menopause (called premature ovarian failure or primary ovarian insufficiency). (See "Patient information: Premature ovarian failure".)
If you are 45 years or older and you have not had a menstrual period in 12 months, there is a good chance that you are menopausal. Most women in this group do not need any lab testing to confirm menopause, especially if you are having menopausal symptoms such as hot flashes or vaginal dryness.
If you are less than 45 years old and you stop having periods or if you have questions about menopausal symptoms, talk to your doctor or nurse. You may need further testing to see if menopause, or another problem, is the cause of your symptoms.
After hysterectomy — If you do not have a uterus (eg, after hysterectomy) but you still have ovaries, it can be hard to know when you are menopausal because you will not have menstrual periods. You may develop menopausal symptoms as your ovaries stop working and your blood levels of estrogen begin to fall. If you are having bothersome symptoms of menopause after hysterectomy, talk to your doctor or nurse.
MENOPAUSE AND MENSTRUAL PERIODS — Many women begin to notice changes in their menstrual periods during the menopausal transition (perimenopause). These changes may include:
Abnormal bleeding — It can be hard to know if vaginal bleeding is abnormal when you are near menopause. In general, you should see your doctor or nurse if you have vaginal bleeding:
Irregular vaginal bleeding may be a normal part of menopause, or it may be a sign of a problem. (See "Patient information: Menstrual cycle disorders (absent and irregular periods)".)
Menopause and birth control — Although most women are less likely to become pregnant (without infertility treatment) after age 45, it is still possible, especially if you are having monthly periods and having sex regularly. If you do not want to become pregnant, you should continue to use some form of birth control until you are menopausal. Once you become menopausal, you cannot get pregnant.
MENOPAUSE SYMPTOMS — As the ovaries stop working, levels of estrogen fall, leading to the typical symptoms of menopause. Some women have few or no menopausal symptoms while other women have bothersome symptoms that interfere with their life. These symptoms often begin during the menopause transition, before you stop having periods.
The most common symptoms of menopause include:
Hot flashes usually begin well before your last menstrual period. It's not clear what causes hot flashes. Most women who have hot flashes will continue to have them for about four years (on average). (See "Menopausal hot flashes".)
Estrogen has important effects on many organs, such as the blood vessels, heart, and bones. Without estrogen, the bones can become weakened (called osteoporosis) and are more likely to break. In addition, the risk of coronary heart disease increases after menopause, which can lead to heart attack and stroke. Treatments are available to reduce the risk of these problems. (See "Patient information: Postmenopausal hormone therapy alternatives".)
MENOPAUSE TREATMENT — Not all women will need treatment for menopausal symptoms, especially if the symptoms are mild. However, there are several options for women who have bothersome menopause-related symptoms.
WHERE TO GET MORE INFORMATION — Your healthcare provider is the best source of information for questions and concerns related to your medical problem.
This article will be updated as needed every four months on our web site (www.uptodate.com/patients).
Related topics for patients, as well as selected articles written for healthcare professionals, are also available. Some of the most relevant are listed below.
Patient level information
Patient information: Premature ovarian failure
Patient information: Menstrual cycle disorders (absent and irregular periods)
Patient information: Hormonal methods of birth control
Patient information: Insomnia treatments
Patient information: Vaginal dryness
Patient information: Depression treatment options for adults
Patient information: Postmenopausal hormone therapy alternatives
Patient information: Postmenopausal hormone therapy
Professional level information
Clinical manifestations and diagnosis of menopause
Clinical manifestations and diagnosis of vaginal atrophy
Menopausal hot flashes
Ovarian development and failure (menopause) in normal women
Postmenopausal hormone therapy and the risk of breast cancer
Postmenopausal hormone therapy: Benefits and risks
Treatment of menopausal symptoms with hormone therapy
Treatment of vaginal atrophy
The following organizations also provide reliable health information.
(www.hormone.org/public/menopause.cfm, available in English and Spanish)
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1. National Institutes of Health State-of-the-Science Conference Statement: Management of Menopause-Related Symptoms. Ann Intern Med 2005; 142:1003.
2. Maclennan, AH, Broadbent, JL, Lester, S, Moore, V. Oral oestrogen and combined oestrogen/progestogen therapy versus placebo for hot flushes. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2004; :CD002978.
3. Utian, WH, Archer, DF, Bachmann, GA, et al. Estrogen and progestogen use in postmenopausal women: July 2008 position statement of The North American Menopause Society. Menopause 2008; 15:584.